The Great North Woods town of Lancaster, New Hampshire was first granted in 1763. Lancaster was an early settlement on the northern portion of the Connecticut River subject to many Indian troubles. The town was named for Lancaster, Massachusetts, hometown of an early settler. Reverend Joshua Weeks, a grantee of the town, was among the group of explorers who named the mountains in the Presidential Range. Other grantees included Nash and Sawyer, who discovered the White Mountain Notch, making a shorter route to Portland possible.
The Lancaster Historical Society is located in The Holton-Wilder House - the home is Coos County's first two-story dwelling constucted in 1780. The structure has served as a home, tavern, church, meeting place and is now a museum.
Lancaster is home to the popular Lancaster Fair.